The temple of Amenhotep I

The temple stands on the terrace above the Ptolemaic temple enclosure. This temple was dedicated to Amenhotep I (1514-1493 BC) and his mother Ahmose Nefertari, who were both deified by the villagers. The original structure was a small one and little remains of it. Many of the walls surrounding the site are later accretions.
The temple consisted of an outer and inner hall, pronaos and shrine. Two steps led into the pronaos which had been decorated with a wall-surround of red, white and black horizontal bands. Nothing remains of the royal couple, to whom the temple was dedicated, who were shown seated on a throne. Numerous statues were found at the site by Drovetti, Schiaparelli, Bruyère and Baraize.
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Photography © 2009 Andre du Toit, S. Africa
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Photography © 2007  Lenka Peacock
The cult of Amenhotep I

From the 18th dynasty onwards, the main focus of religious worship of the population of Deir el-Medina was the cult of Amenhotep I, particularly in the form of "Lord of the village", together with his mother Ahmose-Nefertari. Jaroslav Černý pointed out, that at Deir el-Medina existed several forms of this cult corresponding to the statues, each of which had a particular name, housed in the various sanctuaries established there (Černý,1927,182).
Amenhotep I Djeserkare (1514-1493 BC) was the second pharaoh of the 18th dynasty. He was probably still very young when he came to the throne, so it is likely that his mother, queen Ahmose-Nefertari served as regent for the first part of his reign. They are jointly credited with the foundation of Deir el-Medina, where they consequently enjoyed personal religious cults until the late Ramesside Period.
Apart from the modest temple dedicated primarily to the couple, they were secondary honourands in the chapels of other gods as well. The deified king had many feasts during the year at which his statue was carried in procession by the wab priests. These activities were acts of piety towards the divinised mother and son and were consistently and exclusively performed by the workmen of the village (Ventura 1986, p. 63). The feasts were fairly regular events and were usually part of religious festivals connected with the cult. One festival involved the carrying of Amenhotep I's statue into the Valley of the Kings, another may have been associated with the anniversary of his death. The deified king was called upon to resolve disputes, particularly the ones involving properties. In these oracles, the image of the god, Amenhotep I, responded positively or negatively to questions put to him. Since the priests of this particular cult came from the workmen themselves, the response would be some form of consensus between the priests who were carrying the divine image. The god's oracular pronouncements, however they were made, had great weight, and his processions were a high point in Deir el-Medina's life.  
The textual and representational evidence associated with their cult at Deir el-Medina may be seen in cult statues, votive stelae, libation basins, paintings and inscriptions in tombs and on ostraka. More than fifty of the Theban tombs of private individuals include inscriptions mentioning Ahmose-Nefertari's name.
Below are samples of representations of the deified couple. All originate from Deir el-Medina and are now parts of the museum collections.
Petrie Museum, UCL UC33258
Queen Ahmose-Nefertari
Possibly from Deir el-Medina
19th dynasty, 1295-1186 BC
Limestone
Black ink with traces of the preliminary sketch in red
Upper part of a figure of Queen Ahmose-Nefertari facing left. She wears a long tripartite wig and the Vulture headdress.
Dating of the ostrakon takes into consideration the fact that Queen Ahmose-Nefertari was represented as wearing th "Vulture" headdress after she was deified in the Ramesside Period.
Height: 11.8 cm
Width: 13.5 cm

Photography © Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, UCL
Photo by Lenka Peacock

Petrie Museum, UCL UC14379
Limestone fragment
Possibly from Deir el-Medina
Ramesside Period (1295-1069 BC)
Limestone
Height: 20.5 cm
Width: 14.5 cm
Fragment from a tomb. In the lower left side of the fragment there is an upper part of a royal head and face with uraeus on the forehead. Above the head there is a cartouche of Ahmose-Nefertari, the queen of Ahmose I (1570-1546 BC), the mother of Amenhotep I.  

Photography © Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, UCL
Photo by Lenka Peacock

Petrie Museum, UCL UC14223
Stela of Kaha
Probably from Deir el-Medina
20th dynasty (1186-1069 BC)
Limestone
Height: 20 cm
Width: 12.7 cm
This is a right-hand part of a framed stela of Kaha. It shows the deified Amenhotep I  standing to the left, holding a spear in his left hand. The two cartouches next to
him identify him as Amenhotep Djeserkare. To his right there is a priest standing in adoring position. The priest's name is written in a hieroglyphic inscription above his head.

Photography © Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, UCL
Photo by Lenka Peacock

Egyptian Museum, Turin
Statue of the deified Amenhotep I
From Deir el-Medina
19th-20th dynasty
Painted limestone
On stylistic grounds the statue can be dated to the 19th or 20th dynasty, but it may be a copy of an older statue from the time of Amenhotep I himself. It was probably carried in processions during religious ceremonies. The seated pharaoh wears nemes headdress, decorated with parallel blue and yellow stripes. He has a false beard attached to his chin (Museo Egizio,2019,132).
65 x 27 x 40 cm
Drovetti collection (1824)
Cat. 1372
Museo Egizio Information and photos
IMG_0809.JPG

Photography © Museo Egizio, Turin.
Photo by Lenka Peacock, 2019

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Egyptian Museum, Turin
Stela of Amenemope
From Deir el-Medina
Beginning of the 19th dynasty, reign of Seti I and Rameses II
Limestone
The stela is dedicated to Amenhotep I and Ahmose-Nefertari by the 'Servant in the Place of Truth' Amenemope and Amennakht.
Height: 30 cm
Width: 20 cm
Drovetti collection (1824)
Cat. 1452/bis
Museo Egizio Information & photo

Photography © Museo Egizio, Turin.
Photo by Lenka Peacock, 2019

Egyptian Museum, Turin
Stela of Parahotep dedicated to Amun-Re of Ipet, Meretseger and Amenhotep I
From Deir el-Medina
19th dynasty
Painted limestone
Round-topped
Meretseger was the goddess of the pyramidal peak which lies
above the Theban necropolis. Her usual name was "she who
loves silence"
. She was primarily worshipped by the workmen of Deir el-Medina.
Drovetti collection (1824)
Cat. 1451/bis
Museo Egizio Information and photos
IMG_0714.JPG

Photography © Museo Egizio, Turin.
Photo by Lenka Peacock, 2019

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Egyptian Museum, Turin
Stela depicting Seti I and a vizier adoring Amenhotep I and Ahmose Nefertari
From Deir el-Medina
19th dynasty, reign of Ramesses II (1279-1213 BC)
Limestone with traces of paint
Round-topped
Upper part of a stela depicting Seti I on the right, followed by a Governor of the Town, Vizier (his name is lost), censing before Amenhotep I and Ahmose-Nefertari.
Schiaparelli excavations, 1905
Cat. 1466
Museo Egizio Information and photos

Photography © Museo Egizio, Turin.
Photo by Lenka Peacock, 2019

Although not originating from Deir el-Medina, the two next images have very close links to the inhabitants of the workmen's village. The  royal pair deified by them is represented here. Both fragments come from the Theban tomb of Kynebu, a priest "over the secrets of the estate of Amun". He held office during the reign of Ramesses VIII towards the end of the New Kingdom (around 1130 BC).
Neues Museum, Berlin, Inv.-No. ÄM 2061
Representation of the deified Pharaoh
Amenhotep I
New Kingdom, 20th dynasty, 1152-1145 BC.
From Thebes, Inherkau's tomb TT 359 at Deir el-Medina
Painted plaster
Amenhotep I is shown wearing a blue cap-wig, with a uraeus on its front. It is topped with a sun-disc. Amenhotep holds a crookand a flail, symbols of royalty, in his right hand. He holds
an ankh, symbol of life, in his left hand. The king is shown wearing the classic shendjyt-kilt, and a longer see-through linen garment.

Photography © Neues Museum, Berlin
Photo by Lenka Peacock, 2011

Neues Museum, Berlin, Inv.-No. ÄM 2060
Representation of the deified queen Ahmose-Nefertari
New Kingdom, 20th dynasty, 1152-1145 BC
From Thebes, Inherkau's tomb TT 359 at Deir el-Medina
Painted plaster
Ahmose-Nefertari wears a flowing, pleated dress, typical in
representations of elite women of the Ramesside period (about
1295-1069 BC) rather than the period during which the Queen
was alive. On her head she wears the vulture head-dress of
the goddess Mut, consort of the god Amun of Thebes,
surmounted by a sun-disc and ostrich plumes. The cobra on her crown and the flail in her hand indicate her royal status. The lotus blossom was often held by deceased women, thought to be representing rebirth. The black colour of Ahmose-Nefertari's skin does not reflect her true coloration, but may symbolise regeneration.

Photography © Neues Museum, Berlin
Photo by Lenka Peacock, 2011

Sources:
1. Wilkinson, R. H. : The complete temples of Ancient Egypt.
London : Thames & Hudson, 2000.
2. Bomann, Ann H.: The private chapel in ancient Egypt : a study of the chapels in the workmen's village at el Amarna with special reference to Deir el-Medina and other sites.
London : Kegan Paul International, 1991.
3. Strudwick, Nigel and Helen: Thebes in Egypt : a guide to the tombs and temples of ancient Luxor
London : British Museum Press, 1999.
4. McDowell, A.G.: Village life in ancient Egypt : laundry lists and love songs
Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1999.
5. Pharaoh's workers : the villagers of Deir el-Medina / edited by Leonard H. Lesko
Ithaca : Cornell University Press, 1994.
6. Ventura, Raphael: Living in a city of the dead : a selection of topographical and administrative terms in the documents of the Theban necropolis
Freiburg (Schweiz) : Universitatsverlag, 1986.
7. Černý, Jaroslav: Le culte d’Amenophis 1er chez les ouvriers de la nécropole thébaine,
BIFAO 27 (1927).
8. Museo Egizio, English
Turin : Fondazione Museo delle Antichità Egizie di Torino, 2019.
9. Wilkinson, Toby: The Thames & Hudson Dictionary of Ancient Egypt
London : Thames & Hudson, 2008.